On This Day

Recap of important historical events

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On this day 325 AD: The Council of Nicaea agreed on the Holy Trinity and adopted the Nicene Creed.

On this day 325 AD: The Council of Nicaea, the first ecumenical debate held by the early Christian church, concluded with the establishment of the Holy Trinity and the adoption of the first uniform Christian doctrine known as the Nicene Creed. As the early Christian church grew in the Roman empire it was also beset by so many crises. The most controversial emerged when Arius, an Alexandrian priest, questioned the full divinity of Christ arguing that, unlike God, Christ was born and had a beginning. Many Bishops perceived the teachings of Arius as heretical and dangerous to the salvation of souls. What began as an academic theological debate spread to Christian congregations throughout the empire, threatening a schism in the early Christian church. In May 325 AD, Roman Emperor Constantine I, who converted to Christianity in 312, convened a meeting of all Bishops across his empire at Nicaea (in present-day Turkey) to resolve the crisis and urged the adoption of a new creed that would settle the ambiguities between Christ and God. On August 25, 325 AD, after marathon deliberations, an estimated 318 Bishops, agreed on the equality of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit in the Holy Trinity and asserted that only the Son became incarnate as Jesus Christ. The Arian leaders were subsequently excommunicated and banished into exile and the Nicene Creed was adopted as the unified statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy till date.


On this day 2014: Dr Stella Adadevoh died in Lagos.

On this day 2014: Dr Stella Ameyo Adadevoh died in Lagos, thereby paying the ultimate price to prevent the spread of the deadly Ebola virus in Nigeria. Born in Lagos in October 1956 to Prof. Babatunde Adadevoh, ex-vice-chancellor of the University of Lagos, Adadevoh’s great-grandfather was the Nigerian nationalist Herbert Macaulay (himself the grandson of Samuel Ajayi Crowther, the first African Anglican bishop). Adadevoh was also the grand-niece of Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe. She attended the famous Corona school Yabaand Queen’s school Ibadan. She got her medical degree at the University of Lagos before proceeding to obtain a fellowship with Hammersmith Hospital London. She returned to Nigeria, married Afolabi Cardoso and lived most of her life in Lagos. She spent her last 21 years at the First Consultant Hospital in Obalende, Lagos Island, where she correctly diagnosed Liberian Patrick Sawyer, Nigeria’s index case of Ebola in July 2014. The Liberian denied contact with an Ebola patient, even though his sister had died of the virus. Once Adadevoh suspected Sawyer might have Ebola, she quarantined him and contacted the authorities while she created a makeshift isolation centre for treatment. Adadevoh kept Sawyer in the hospital despite his desperate attempts to leave. His claims that he had malaria fell on deaf ears. Adadevoh also turned down the Liberian Ambassador’s request to release Sawyer for a business conference in Calabar. Through her action, Adadevoh played a key role in curbing the spread of the deadly Ebola virus in Nigeria. However, on 4 August 2014, it was confirmed that she had tested positive and was being treated. Adadevoh died on the afternoon of 19 August 2014. Her body was decontaminated and cremated. Her family obtained the ashes and held a private funeral on September 12, 2014, in Lagos. She is survived by her husband and son. The Adadevoh Health Trust @drasatrust was founded in memory of the Nigerian heroine. May her soul continue to rest in peace.


On this day 1989: Sam Okwaraji slumped at the National Stadium.

On this day 1989: Super Eagles midfield maestro Sam Okwaraji slumped on the pitch during a world cup qualifier at the Lagos National Stadium, Surulere, Lagos and was pronounced dead on arrival at the hospital. Born on 19 May 1964, in Orlu, Imo State, Nigeria, Samuel Sochukwuma Okwaraji had a successful career in Europe. Within a four year period (1984–1988) he had played for AS Roma, Dinamo Zagreb, Austria Klagenfurt, VfB Stuttgart and SSV Ulm. He was playing for these clubs while studying. Okwaraji is a qualified lawyer with a masters in international law from the Pontifical Lateran University of Rome. On 30 April 1986, playing for Zagreb he scored 3 goals in a friendly game vs NK Budućnost Hodošan. Okwaraji made the Green Eagles squad in 1988 and at that year’s African Nations Cup he scored one of the fastest goals in the history of the championship against the Indomitable Lions of Cameroon. He played until the finals where the Eagles lost to Cameroon by a lone goal. Tragedy struck on August 12, 1989, when Okwaraji collapsed ten minutes from the end of a 1990 World Cup qualifier against Angola in Lagos. He died from possible complications of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at the young age of 25.


On this day 30 B.C: Cleopatra committed suicide.

On this day 30 B.C: Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt and lover of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony committed suicide after the defeat of her forces against Octavian. Cleopatra, born in 69 B.C., was made Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt, upon the death of her father, Ptolemy XII, in 51 B.C. Her brother was made King Ptolemy XIII at the same time, and the siblings ruled Egypt under the formal title of husband and wife. But Cleopatra soon had a dispute with her brother, and a civil war erupted in 48 B.C. Just as Cleopatra was preparing to attack her brother with a large army the Roman civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great spread to Egypt. Pompey fled to Egypt after his defeat but was immediately murdered by agents of Ptolemy XIII. Caesar later arrived in Alexandria to restore order in Egypt. To win him over so Cleopatra travelled to Alexandria and was offered as a packaged gift to Caesar. The powerful Roman leader fell for the alluring Egyptian Queen and interceded in the Egyptian civil war on her behalf. In 47 B.C., Ptolemy XIII was killed after a defeat against Caesar’s forces, and Cleopatra was made dual ruler with another brother, Ptolemy XIV. Caesar and Cleopatra then frolicked for several weeks together before Caesar departed for Asia Minor. In June 47 B.C., Cleopatra bore a son and named him Caesarion “little Caesar” claiming he was Caesar’s. She later joined Caesar in Rome with her son. Cleopatra lived discretely in Caesar’s villa outside Rome. She returned to Egypt after Caesar was assassinated in March 44 B.C. And soon after, her brother Ptolemy XIV died, likely poisoned by her. She then made her son co-ruler with her as Ptolemy XV Caesar. With Julius Caesar’s murder, Rome again fell into civil war, which was temporarily resolved in 43 B.C. with the formation of the second triumvirate, made up of Octavian, Caesar’s great-nephew and chosen heir; Mark Antony, a powerful general; and Lepidus, a Roman statesman. Antony took up the administration of the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire, and he summoned Cleopatra to Tarsus, in Asia Minor, to answer charges that she had aided his enemies. Cleopatra arrived in Tarsus on a magnificent river barge, dressed as Venus the Roman god of love. She seduced Antony, as she had Caesar before him and returned with him to Alexandria, where they spent the winter in debauchery. In 40 B.C., Antony returned to Rome and married Octavian’s sister Octavia in an effort to mend his strained alliance with Octavian. But the triumvirate continued to deteriorate. In 37 B.C., Antony separated from Octavia and travelled east, arranging for Cleopatra to join him in Syria. In their time apart, Cleopatra had borne him twins, a son and a daughter. According to Octavian’s propagandists, the lovers were then married, which violated Roman law restricting Romans from marrying foreigners. As Anthony’s image suffered because of failed military campaigns in the east he managed some successful against Armenia. To shore up his image he staged a victory march through the streets of Alexandria alongside Cleopatra on golden thrones. Again Octavian propagandists interpreted the spectacle as a sign that Antony intended to deliver the Roman Empire to foreigners. Following more years of tension and propaganda attacks, Octavian declared war against Cleopatra, and therefore Antony, in 31 B.C. Octavian’s brilliant military commanders gained early success. On September 2, 31 B.C their fleets clashed at Actium in Greece. After heavy fighting, Cleopatra fled and set course for Egypt with 60 of her ships. Antony then broke through the enemy line and followed her. The disheartened fleet that remained surrendered to Octavian. One week later, Antony’s land forces surrendered. Octavian reached Alexandria and again defeated Antony. In the aftermath of the battle, Cleopatra took refuge in the mausoleum she built for herself. Antony believing that Cleopatra was dead, stabbed himself but a messenger arrived, saying Cleopatra was still alive. Antony had himself carried to the mausoleum and begged Cleopatra to surrender to Octavian before he died. When the Octavian arrived, Cleopatra tried to seduce him, but knowing her antecedents with Caesar and Anthony Octavian rejected her entreaties. On August 12, 30 B.C. rather than surrender to Octavian, Cleopatra decided to commit suicide. She brought a poisonous Egyptian serpent to bite her on the breast alongside two handmaids who died too. Octavian then executed her son Caesarion, and annexed Egypt into the Roman Empire.

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On this day in 1703: Renowned writer of “Robinson Crusoe”, was placed in a pillory for seditious libel

On this day in 1703: English trader, journalist and later the renowned writer of “Robinson Crusoe”, Daniel Defoe was placed in a pillory for the crime of seditious libel after publishing a politically satirical pamphlet but was rather pelted with flowers. Born in London in 1660, Daniel Defoe came from a family of successful non-conformists who were not afraid to dissent against the majority. Daniel made a living as a trader but was also outspoken and active in the socio-political issues. During his time religious dissenters were among the “radical” protesters against the church and political establishment for suppressing dissent. In 1702 he published a pamphlet “The Shortest Way with Dissenters,” in anonymity to the chagrin of the authorities. The pamphlet satirically suggested that instead of passing laws against all religious dissenters – including Protestant “nonconformists” like himself and many who emigrated to the New World – the easier solution would be to simply kill them. Unfortunately, Defoe’s proposal was taken seriously by some of the Anglican Tories in government who offered a reward to seek out the author. His publisher ratted him out and he was arrested, tried and sentenced to a huge fine, time in Newgate Prison, and 3 days in the pillory. The pillory was used to punish minor offenders including cheats, rioters and homosexuals, by shaming them in public. They were pelted by the crowd with rotten eggs, filth, and in extreme cases with stones, saucepans that caused serious injury. Some were killed or maimed for life. Defoe was put in the pillory on the last three days of July, for an hour each time in three of the busiest places in London – outside the Royal Exchange in Cornhill (near his own home), near the conduit in Cheapside and finally in Fleet Street by Temple Bar. While awaiting his pillorying Defoe composed a sarcastic poem, “Hymn to the Pillory,” in which he wrote: “Tell us, great engine, how to understand Or reconcile the justice of this land…” As his friends sold the poem, the public throw flowers instead and drink to his health. Defoe was sent back to Newgate prison but he could not pay his fine. In November, Defoe’s fine was paid out of secret service funds and he was released. He was later employed to publish a regular newspaper which showed the ministry in a favourable light. In 1706 Defoe was sent to Scotland as a spy to gather political intelligence and further the projected union with England. He continued to turn out propaganda for successive ministries and later wrote Robinson Crusoe for which he is best-remembered in 1719.

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On this day 1981: Prince Charles married Lady Diana Spencer.

On this day 1981: Thirty-two-year-old Prince Charles heir to the British throne got married to 20-year-old English schoolteacher, Lady Diana Spencer. The grand ceremony at St. Paul’s Cathedral in the presence of 3,500 guests tagged the wedding of the century was watched by nearly one billion television viewers across 74 countries.

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On this day in 1945: Betty Lou Oliver famously called the “Elevator girl” cheated death twice

On this day in 1945: Betty Lou Oliver famously called the “Elevator girl” cheated death twice when she survived a 75 storey drop after a US bomber plane crashed into the Empire State Building. She set a world record for the longest survived elevator fall. Betty Lou worked as a lift supervisor at the Empire State Building when it was disastrously struck by a bomber plane in 1945. She was working on the 80th floor when the B-25 Mitchell Bomber slammed into its side killing at least 14 people. Betty Lou was inside the elevator cab when the plane struck, breaking the supporting cables to catapult her out of the cab. It is amazing that she survived this first part as she suffered severe burns as well as horrifically, a broken pelvis, back and neck. She recalled to the press at the time: “I had just started down from the 80th floor, and then there was a noise above me and then a great block of machinery came through the top of my car.” She was treated by first-aid workers and then sent down in another lift. What happened next was a miracle. The cables on the elevator had been weakened and snapped from the weight of the lift to catapult the cab into a downward spiral at neck-breaking speed what should have been certain death. Yet again and most incredibly, she managed to survive the absolutely terrifying ordeal. Investigators believed her extremely lucky escape was possible because a thousand feet of cable had fallen to the bottom first, therefore softening the impact. The rapid compression of air is also believed to have helped provide a cushion on landing. Five months after her trauma, brave Betty Lou amazingly re-visited the building with an elevator inspector, who praised her ‘guts’ in riding the lift to the top.

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On this day 1847: Liberia declared its independence.

On this day 1847: The Republic of Liberia, formerly a colony of the American Colonization Society, declared its independence making it the first post-colonial state in Africa. As the campaign for the abolition of slavery gained momentum the American Colonization founded in 1816 chose the Grain Coast – so-called because of melegueta pepper grains in the area – as a place to re-settle free-born Black Americans and formerly enslaved people. Reaching an agreement with African chiefs the Grain Coast became an American colony in 1821 the first free slave arrived there. About 20,00 African Americans migrated in the following decades. By this time, the U.S and Britain had outlawed slave trade. So liberated people from captured slave ships were settled in Liberia by the American navy. The colony grew and as abolitionists continued attacking the system the U.S came under pressure from Britain to hands off the colony. America reluctantly accepted and on July 26, 1847, a young African American man from Virginia named Joseph Jenkins Roberts declared the colony of Liberia in West Africa an independent republic. Roberts who had moved there in 1829 at the age of twenty from Petersburg, Virginia became the first elected president of the new country the next year. Ironically the U.S didn’t officially accord Liberia diplomatic recognition as a Sovereign state until 1862.

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On this day in 1908: Ajinomoto Co. was founded.

On this day in 1908: Ajinomoto Co. was founded as a subsidiary of Suzuki Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd following the discovery of monosodium glutamate by Dr Kikunae Ikeda as a key ingredient in Kombu soup. In 1907 Dr. Kikunae Ikeda, a chemist at the Tokyo Imperial University started developing a seasoning. He then discovered that monosodium glutamate was the source of a flavour from Kombu seaweed, an edible kelp mostly from the family Laminariaceae that is widely eaten in East Asia. Ikeda named the flavour “umami” and isolated glutamate from a broth of dried Konbu kelp. In July 1908, he got a patent for monosodium glutamate. Two months later, he was approached by Mr. Saburosuke Suzuki II, the founder of Suzuki Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd to become part owner of the patent. Production started at S. Suzuki Pharmaceutical Co.’s Zushi factory in December 1908 and in April 1909, Ajinomoto presented Ikeda’s seasoning under the brand name AJI-NO-MOTO at a new product exhibition event in Tokyo. The product was introduced to the market the next month and sold primarily to housewives by using their trademark – a housewife in an apron – in newspaper advertisements, on signboards, and on ground stamps. The product was widely received and by 1917 the company ventured into its first overseas market in New York. They started advertising Ajinomoto on TV in 1954 and subsequently established subsidiaries all over the world, including India, Nigeria, China, Peru, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Brazil.

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On this day 1567: Mary Queen of Scots abdicated in favour of her one-year-old son

On this day 1567: Mary Queen of Scots while imprisoned at Lochleven Castle, Scotland, was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son, later crowned King James VI of Scotland Mary was only 6 days old when she ascended the Scottish throne after her father, King James V died in 1542. Her mother then sent her to be raised in France. In 1558 she married the French dauphin, who became King Francis II of France in 1559. Francis died in 1560 and Mary returned to Scotland to assume her designated role as the country’s monarch. In 1565, she married her English cousin Lord Darnley to strengthen her claim of succession to the English throne in the future. In 1567, Darnley was mysteriously killed in an explosion at Kirk o’ Field, and Mary’s lover, James Hepburn the Earl of Bothwell, was the key suspect. Although Hepburn was acquitted of the charge, both went ahead to get married in the same year. This marriage infuriated the nobles who imprisoned Hepburn and Mary in the tiny island of Loch Leven. And on July 24, 1567, she was forced to abdicate in favour of her son by Darnley, James. In 1568, she escaped and raised an army to reclaim her throne. However, Mary and her army were defeated at the Battle of Langside by a confederacy of Scottish Protestants under James Stewart, the regent of her son. Mary fled to Cumberland to seek protection from Queen Elizabeth I. The English Queen initially welcomed Mary but was soon forced to put her under house arrest after Mary was implicated in various plots to overthrow Elizabeth. In 1586, a major plot to murder Elizabeth was reported, and Mary was convicted for complicity and sentenced to death. On February 8, 1587, Mary Queen of Scots was beheaded for treason. Her son, King James VI of Scotland, calmly accepted his mother’s execution, and upon Queen Elizabeth’s death in 1603 he became king of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

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On this day 1892(estimated): The Union Jack was raised in Ijebu Ode after the battle of Imagbon

On this day 1892(estimated): The Union Jack was raised in Ijebu Ode after the battle of Imagbon during which the British troops wreaked havoc on the Ijebu infantry with a machine gun capable of firing 2000 rounds in 3 minutes in what is now known as British-Ijebu war. In 1891, during the colonial era, the Ijebu Kingdom under the leadership of the Awujale closed down Ejirin market, blocked the trade route to Lagos and imposed custom dues on traders. This impacted negatively on the revenue of the crown colony. The British government repeatedly appealed to the Awujale to open the route to no avail. In May 1891, a British acting governor, Captain C.M Denton escorted by Hausa constables went to persuade the Awujale with gifts which he still rejected. However, after much pressure, but to the dissatisfaction of his subjects the Awujale agreed and a deal was reached allowing the free passage of goods to Lagos. The Awujale was to receive £500 annually as compensation for the loss of customs revenue. But the agreement was breached when a white missionary was denied access through the kingdom. Infuriated by this action, the British govt authorized the use of force on the kingdom and gathered troops from Ghana, Sierra Leone, Lagos and Ibadan. On the 12th of May, 1892, under the command of Colonel F.C. Scot, 450 men (including 150 Hausa troops) plus 340 carriers, sailed up the Lagos Lagoon via a flotilla of canoes and vessels. They landed at Lekki/Ekpe where another 186 men joined them. But the British underestimated the fighting prowess of the Ijebu infantry that had over 8000 men armed with old rifles. The British troops met strong resistance, and though they succeeded in razing down 4 villages, many of their men sustained fatal injuries. However, the Ijebus started losing as the battle progressed but remained determined to prevent the British army from crossing the sacred Yemoji river. The river goddess was said to have taken human sacrifice in order to prevent the British from crossing. The river was then dug deeper to make it impenetrable. The Hausa troops initially refused to cross having heard the legend of the river goddess. However, Major George Colquhoun Madden of the West Indian Regiment mounted a machine gun laden canoe and successfully crossed the river. Having observed that the goddess did nothing, the Hausa troops also crossed and the British army unleashed havoc on the Ijebus burning several villages. They camped before Imagbon the next day. By then they had lost 56 men including 3 white officers (among them Captain Roderick Owen) and 30 more wounded. Although the Ijebu had lost around 7–900 warriors thousands remained at large and ready to fight. However, as Scot prepared to march on the next morning emissaries arrived offering the Awujale’s terms of surrender. The Kingdom had fallen to superior firepower. Scot warned his men against pillaging but the Ibadan irregulars flouted the order and were disarmed. The toll gates in Oru built by the Ijebus and some shrines were destroyed. Ijebu kingdom was later annexed to the colony of southern Nigeria  

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On this day 1439: 17-year-old King Henry VI banned kissing.

On this day 1439: 17-year-old King Henry VI banned kissing as a precaution to prevent the spread of the deadly Bubonic plague more commonly known as the Black death which killed millions of people in England. Beginning around 1348, the Bubonic plague swept through Asia, Europe and North Africa killing an estimated 50 million people. It’s generally accepted that the first quarantine occurred in 1377 as people became aware of the benefits of keeping your distance from the sick. By the 15th century, it kept coming back in spontaneous outbreaks, spreading through fleas and rats across port cities in medieval Europe. However, unlike other parts of Europe, the Black Death never left England completely. It devastated small areas in virulent outbursts. And by the Great Famine of 1438 when the malnourished populace had weaker immune systems one of the worst outbreaks commenced. Born in 1421, what King Henry VI ascended the throne when much of England had come to perceive the plague as a way of life. In 15th-century Europe, kissing was a common type of greeting. In fact, it is still a part of Catholic tradition. Back then everyone kissed one another as casually as we shook hands before the COVID-19 pandemic. But the disease was not exclusive to any group of people. It struck the lowly and the noble, no one was safe. There was no cure, other than fleeing infected areas. Special “plague doctors” with no medical training were authorised to beat patients with batons to “purify” them of sins they must have committed to earn the wrath of the divine creator. Family members went unburied and died without the Last Rites because the devout clergy were already dead. And for Henry VI, his insights would often kiss him to pay him homage. But he had observed the tendency to become sick for those in contact with sick people. So on July 16, 1439, as a way of keeping as many of his subjects as he can alive. Henry VI proclaimed; Here ye, here ye! No more smoothies! Unfortunately, and of course, enforcing the kissing ban was a tall order. For reasons we all know!  

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On this day 1997: Eccentric Italian Fashion designer Gianni Versace was murdered

On this day 1997: Eccentric Italian Fashion designer Gianni Versace was murdered by 27-year-old serial killer Andrew Cunanan on the steps outside Versace’s South Beach mansion in Miami, Florida. As of late 1996, Cunanan had no criminal record prior to being dumped by his wealthy gay lover in California. He then moved to Minneapolis and on April 27, 1997, Cunanan killed his ex-lover David Madison and his friend Jeffrey Trail. He then escaped in Madson’s red Jeep Cherokee. Two days later Cunanan entered the home of wealthy developer Lee Miglin, beat him to death, and stole his Lexus. By May 9, Cunanan’s face was all over the airwaves as a wanted fugitive so he needed another car. He killed a cemetery caretaker William Reese and stole his red pickup truck. With a massive FBI manhunt for Cunanan underway, he arrived Miami Beach on May 11 and checked into Normandy Plaza Hotel. He spent his time doing drugs, eating fast food, stealing, and going to gay clubs seeking older wealthy partners. On July 11 he was recognized by a fast-food worker who had seen his picture on America’s Most Wanted tv show. But he left before the police arrived. By the 14th of July Cunanan left the hotel without paying his bill. The next day he shot Versace to death outside his South Beach mansion. A nationwide manhunt for Cunanan commenced. On July 23, the police found his body in a boathouse not far from Versace’s home. He died from a self-inflicted bullet wound from the same gun that took the lives of three of his victims. He left no suicide note. Although Cunanan and Versace were both openly gay, there was no evidence to suggest that they had ever met and thus till date, the motive behind the murder of one of the most flamboyant fashion designers in history remains a mystery.

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On this day 1971:10 military officers were executed in Rabat, Morocco.

On this day 1971: At least 10 senior military officers including 4 generals involved in an aborted coup were executed in Rabat, Morocco. The coup was instigated by General Mohamed Medbouh who was the head of the Moroccan Royal Guard under King Hassan II, Lieutenant-colonel M’hamed Ababou and his elder brother Commandant Mohamed Ababou. In April 1971 while visiting the US, Medbouh discovered that Pan American World Airways abandoned its plan to build an International hotel in Casablanca because of official graft. Ben Messaoud, the King’s confidant had written that the company: “Should also pay 600 million to the king”. Medbouh reported to the King who briefly detained Messaoud and fired some cabinet ministers. But Medbouh believed this to be a slap on the wrist and concluded that the King was also corrupt. He then hatched a plan to oust the King. On 10 July 1971, 1,200 armed cadets stormed the palace during the king’s birthday reception. About 92 people were killed during the shooting, including the Belgian ambassador, the Minister of Justice, the ex-Prime Minister. The King managed to hide in a bathroom. Meanwhile a disagreement between Medbouh who only wanted the King to abdicate and M’hamed Ababou who had more extreme demands cause the junior officer to fatally shoot the general. Ababou was later killed in the crossfire at the military HQ. The coupists initially announced the King’s death but when the King emerged from hiding, the rebels who met him dropped their weapons and started chanting “Long Live The King” claiming they were hypnotised into believing the palace was under attack and they were to save the King. Less than 72 hours later, 4 generals, 5 colonels and 1 major faced a firing squad without trial or court martial. They were shot in the courtyard of a military barracks in Rabat witnessed by military officers, who spat on the corpses. However, many believe they wanted to reform the political system without harming the King.

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